Planet Hardwood
PlanetHardwood

Why “Zero VOC’s” can still shorten your life

“Zero VOC’s” has become a the tipping point between products judged “good” or “bad”. This is misleading. Volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) describes a molecular relationship, not a material. There are VOC’s that are harmful to the environment because they react photochemically and contribute to smog. Additionally there are VOC’s that have no evidence or history of being deleterious to human health.

The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) mandate is about what happens outdoors. Indoor air pollution is not addressed by the EPA (or any other government agency). The following is a list the EPA excludes from being defined as a “harmful” VOC because (quoted directly from their intro to this list) “This includes any such organic compound other than the following, which have been determined to have negligible photochemical reactivity”… in other words, not contributing to smog.

So “Zero VOC, or VOC-free” can include the following:

  • methane
  • ethane
  • methylene chloride (dichloromethane)
  • 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform)
  • 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113)
  • trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11)
  • dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12)
  • chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22)
  • trifluoromethane (HFC-23)
  • 1,2-dichloro 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114)
  • chloropentafluoroethane (CFC-115)
  • 1,1,1-trifluoro 2,2-dichloroethane (HCFC-123)
  • 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a)
  • 1,1-dichloro 1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b)
  • 1-chloro 1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b)
  • 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124)
  • pentafluoroethane (HFC-125)
  • 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134)
  • 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a)
  • 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a)
  • parachlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF)
  • cyclic, branched, or linear completely methylated siloxanes
  • acetone
  • perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene)
  • 3,3-dichloro-1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane (HCFC-225ca)
  • 1,3-dichloro-1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HCFC-225cb)
  • 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane (HFC 43-10mee)
  • difluoromethane (HFC-32)
  • ethylfluoride (HFC-161)
  • 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236fa)
  • 1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245ca)
  • 1,1,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245ea)
  • 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245eb)
  • 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245fa)
  • 1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea)
  • 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane (HFC-365mfc)
  • chlorofluoromethane (HCFC-31)
  • 1-chloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-151a)
  • 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123a)
  • 1,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4-nonafluoro-4-methoxy-butane (C4F9OCH3 or HFE-7100)
  • 2-(difluoromethoxymethyl)-1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane ((CF3)2CFCF2OCH3)
  • 1-ethoxy-1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,4-nonafluorobutane (C4F9OC2H5 or HFE-7200)
  • 2-(ethoxydifluoromethyl)-1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane ((CF3)2CFCF2OC2H5)
  • methyl acetate
  • 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoro-3-methoxy-propane (n-C3F7OCH3 or HFE-7000)
  • 3-ethoxy-1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-dodecafluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl) hexane (HFE-7500)
  • 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFC 227ea)
  • methyl formate (HCOOCH3)
  • 1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,5-decafluoro-3-methoxy-4-trifluoromethyl-pentane (HFE-7300)
  • dimethyl carbonate
  • propylene carbonate

and perfluorocarbon compounds which fall into these classes:

  1. cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated alkanes,
  2. cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated ethers with no unsaturations,
  3. cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated tertiary amines with no unsaturations, and
  4. sulfur containing perfluorocarbons with no unsaturations and with sulfur bonds only to carbon and fluorine.

Wood hardness

Different woods have different degrees of hardness and density which will affect how they look over time. Eastern White Pine, the softest wood used for flooring, has in many cases withstood over 200 years of use and abuse. You’ll never “walk through” a wood floor.

Hardness and response to moisture are individual to each species, and these properties are important considerations when choosing a wood floor.

The hardness of wood is measured scientifically by the “Janka” test. This test measures the pressure it takes to sink a .444 inch steel ball one half its diameter into the surface of the wood. A higher number denotes a harder wood. Woods that are naturally harder than others will show less dents and evidence of traffic, but this relative standard is mostly for cosmetic reasons as all wood floors will last hundreds of years before they are worn through.

Humidity and the health of you and your wood floor

Wood acts like a sponge. It expands in the presence of excess moisture, and contracts when that moisture is given up to a dryer environment. It is always trying to achieve a balance with the prevailing relative humidity. In the Northeast, the natural seasonal swings in relative humidity are wide, and will stress the wood at each extreme. All wood responds in the same way, no matter how it’s mixed, shaved, turned it into powder and glued back together again (like the cores of plastic laminate flooring), wood will react dimensionally to the presence or absence of moisture. Wood flooring is the most stable between 35% and 65% relative humidity, the same range comfortable for people, pets, plants and other living things. Here in New England, even though human activity adds moisture to the air, it is important to humidify your home during the heating season.

Wood plantations, forestry, and the real causes of deforestation.

Nearly 25% of all industrial wood consumption is from plantation sources, and that number is expected to double over the next 50 years. Most of the Teak flooring sold in America is sourced from plantations in Central America, and just about all of our Southern Yellow Pine is plantation grown. Radiata Pine plantations occupy nearly 8% of New Zealand’s land area and Palm Oil and Rubberwood plantations occupy over 80% of Malaysia’s arable land.

Plantations are a mixed blessing. They remove pressure from the primary forests and can additionally reclaim degraded lands, halt soil erosion and sequester carbon. However, they can also replace a bio-diverse native forest with a mono-specie. Most woods do not lend themselves to plantation forestry and can only grow in a natural habitat. (more…)

Wood: the greenest building material.

To identify the most environmentally responsible building material, the choice would logically rest on two fundamental principles:

  1. It is a renewable resource.
  2. It is a biodegradable resource.

Wood is the only common building material that satisfies those criteria. Measured against plastic, steel, aluminum, concrete, or cloth, wood is the most environmentally friendly in terms of low emissions, energy consumption and toxic by-products. Every part of the tree has a use.

Trees are mostly carbon. The carbon comes from the carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and through the process of photosynthesis is converted to wood fiber. This carbon is “fixed” in the wood, and can only be released if the wood is burned or allowed to rot above ground. A young growing forest helps to balance the excess carbon dioxide in our atmosphere. This is an ongoing renewable natural process.

(more…)